Duckworth, A. (2016, March 31). Don’t grade schools on grit. SundayReview.

Investigators have studied whether working memory of children living in rural poverty is distinct from the working memory profiles of children in urban poverty. The results clearly suggest that school-aged low-socioeconomic status children exhibit both verbal and visuospatial working memory deficits, possibly due to increased levels of stress. Children in urban poverty showed symmetric working memory weaknesses, while children in rural poverty had worse visuospatial working memory than verbal working memory.

Best Practices