” Duke, N., & Varlas, L. (2019, July). Turn Small Reading Groups into Big Wins. Education Update, 61(7). Retrieved March 11, 2020.”


Of the key methods for supporting early literacy (K–3), researchers recommend that children receive a mix of not only whole-group but also small-group and individual literacy instruction. However, small-group literacy instruction is complex and can be applied inconsistently or in ways that mute the intended benefits. Researcher, author, and University of Michigan professor Nell K. Duke is an expert on early literacy development, particularly among children living in poverty. Her extensive knowledge of research on how children learn to read provides guidance for small-group literacy in the early grades.

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