Holohan, M. (2019, September 30). How to stop bullying in schools: What works, what doesn’t. Retrieved October 1, 2019.

One-off programs — such as guest speakers and school assemblies — are ineffective at addressing the complexities of bullying, says Dorothy Espelage of the University of North Carolina. Some schools are making progress through research-backed programs, including a California middle school that adopted anti-bullying classes and established a framework for bullies, victims and bystanders.