Starr, A. (2019, July 13). States Are Ratcheting Up Reading Expectations For 3rd-Graders. Retrieved July 20, 2019.

Nineteen states now require students to pass reading tests or they may be retained in third grade, but there is some debate as to whether such “mandatory retention” policies help or harm students. Florida started the trend in 2002, and while being held back a grade can hurt self-esteem of students, there is conflicting data as to whether retention policies or accompanied interventions are boosting students’ skills.

Best Practices